South Korea is marking the first anniversary of the Sewol ferry disaster, which left more than 300 people dead.
More than 250 school students were among those killed when the ship - overloaded and illegally redesigned - sank off Jindo island.
The disaster triggered nationwide grief and outrage. It led to severe criticism of safety standards and rescue efforts.
Several memorial ceremonies are being held across the country.
Home Affairs Minister Jeong Jong-seop said nearly 300 private organisations and local governments were marking the day.
Two ceremonies are planned in Ansan city, where the students - who were on a school trip - came from.
On Wednesday, relatives of those who died sailed to the site of the disaster to scatter flowers and make offerings.
"I am so heartbroken. In such cold water, to think how cold she would have been," Reuters news agency quoted Lee Jung-seob as saying of her daughter, school student Hye-kyung.
"As she ended her life, to think how she would have missed her mum and dad and her family. My heart aches so much."
As the ship - sailing from Incheon to Jeju island - listed, the crew told passengers to stay in their cabins and wait.
Harrowing phone messages and footage later emerged showing students growing increasingly scared as they became trapped inside the sinking ship. Of the 476 people on board, 304 died.
Steve Evans, BBC News, Seoul:
The mother showed the records she still keeps on her phone of those last calls from her daughter. In those calls from the stricken vessel, Eun-hwa expressed her worry that the ship was tilting. She was concerned at the fears of her fellow passengers, her school friends from Danwon High School.
Not only did Eun-hwa not return but her remains have not been found. She is one of nine victims of whom there is no trace. Their families want the Sewol raised because the absence of remains impedes the process of grief and of mourning.
Her mother told the BBC: "It really hurts. The anger boils up. My heart feels as if it's about to burn."
Demands for answers go on
Divers have recovered all but nine of the bodies, in months of searching. Relatives are now campaigning for the ship to be raised so more remains can be found - something the government says will cost $110m (£74m).
Relatives also want an independent inquiry into the disaster. Investigators say the ferry sank because, when an inexperienced crew member made too fast a turn, the combination of an illegal redesign and overloaded cargo meant the ship was unstable.
Most of the crew survived. The captain and three senior crew members were given long jail terms for failing to adequately protect passengers, and 11 other crew members were also imprisoned.
The captain of the first coast guard vessel on scene was also jailed for negligence relating to the botched rescue effort.
Separate trials were held for employees of the ferry operator, Chonghaejin Marine Co. The billionaire owner Yoo Byung-eun disappeared after the disaster and was eventually found dead.
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