Around the world, countries are claiming obscure and difficult-to-reach tracts of the deep-sea floor, far from the surface and further still from land. Why?
There is a long history of claiming newly discovered territories, of planting the flag at far outposts of the known world.
In the early 20th Century, explorers raced to the South Pole, their sponsors keen to benefit from future exploitation of these unknown areas.
In 1945, President Harry S Truman broke with convention to claim the entire continental shelf off the US.
And, in 2007, Russia used a submersible to plant a flag at the North Pole.
All shared a common motivation - the hunt for new resources - and there is now a new frontier: the deep-sea floor.
Exploration offers the prospect of finding huge amounts of previously untapped resources, but serious environmental concerns remain.
Abysses to mountainsOnly 5% of the deep-sea floor, which covers about 60% of the Earth's surface, has been properly explored.
Light penetrates only the top layers, and the vast, deep oceans are pitch-black, with temperatures just a few degrees above freezing point.
Each time it is explored - by mini-submarines tethered to surface ships - strong lights pick out fragile structures and animals that have never been seen before.
But countries and companies are turning their eyes towards its minerals, potentially worth billions of pounds.
Already, there have been significant advances in the technology required to discover, map and mine them - with robotic equipment built to operate at great depths.
There are significant deposits scattered over the plains of the ocean's deepest abysses and encrusted on the rocky outcrops of underwater mountains.
They are also on active and extinct hydrothermal vents - the fissures in the planet's surface from which hot water spouts.
Deep-sea mining, an idea dating back to the 1960s, could now happen within 10 years.
It has been made a possibility by population growth, economic growth and concerns over the supply and security of minerals on land.
Copper, nickel and cobalt can all be found at high concentrations, in mineral deposits, as can the so-called "critical" metals.
These include the rare earth elements used in a range of new technologies such as memory chips, LEDs and batteries for electric vehicles.
It is thought the mountains of the Pacific alone could contain about 22 times more tellurium - which is used in solar panels - than the known land-based reserves combined.
Under pressureAt present there is no exploitation of deep-sea mineral resources, only exploration.
The UK - through a partnership between the government and a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin UK - is among countries exploring one of the main areas, the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, which stretches across the Pacific Ocean for thousands of miles between Mexico and Hawaii.
There are serious challenges to overcome at this remote location.
Equipment has to function reliably at depths of 5km (three miles) - where pressure is 500 times that at the surface - before deposits are brought on to ships and taken back to land.
There are other resources closer to shore.
Rich deposits of minerals are found at depths of over 1km (0.6 miles) in the Bismarck Sea off Papua New Guinea.
For these easier-to-access reserves, deep-sea mining equipment has been designed, tested and built.
If mining operations go ahead here, they will offer some insights for future and deeper operations.
However, strong opposition remains over concerns about the potential environmental impact.
The rules for exploitation are yet to be agreed, but contractors will have to demonstrate they have assessed the environmental impact of mining and that plans are in place to manage the effects.
This is perhaps the greatest challenge for deep-sea mining and the area of greatest tension.
Our understanding of the deep-sea environment is very limited, let alone our understanding of the effects of mining it.
The diversity of life in the oceans, particularly around deep-sea vents and other mineral deposits, is spectacular, yet we know there are many more species still to be discovered.
Recent research by international consortiums of scientists has begun to try to measure the impact of churning up the ocean floor.
Mining could have consequences for many forms of life in the ocean.
That could, in turn, affect the ocean's function as a food source and a carbon sink.
It could also affect the search for new drugs and other products.
The claim: The Indian government is advising pregnant women to exercise, avoid eggs and meat, shun desire and lust, and hang beautiful photos in the bedroom.
Reality Check verdict: Some of the advice is good, some bad, and some downright ridiculous.
India's Ayush ministry, which promotes traditional and alternative medicine, last week distributed a tiny 16-page booklet on Mother and Child Care to journalists. It's three years old but it's been dominating news since its re-release just ahead of the annual International Yoga Day, which is being celebrated on Wednesday.
Produced by the Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy, which is a part of Ayush, the booklet dishes out advice on the yoga exercises that pregnant women should - and should not - do; lists of food they should - and should not - eat; and also offers suggestions on what to read, what sort of company to keep, what sort of photos to look at, and so on and so forth.
Doctors in India say though there is merit in some of the advice, it would not be wise to follow the guidelines in their entirety.
Take for instance the advice on food.
The booklet prescribes a long list of items that pregnant and lactating women should take and that includes sprouts, lentils, fruits, leafy vegetables like spinach, dry fruits, juices and whole grain. All very good, say doctors.
Then it lists foods to be avoided - tea, coffee, sugar, spices, white flour, fried items and, rather controversially, "eggs and non-vegetarian" food.
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Critics say that is in keeping with India's Hindu nationalist BJP government's policy to promote vegetarianism, and that it's dangerous advice in a country where malnutrition and anaemia among pregnant women has meant India has the highest rate of maternal mortality in the world.
Stung by the criticism, the Ayush ministry has issued clarification saying that their suggestion that non-vegetarian food may be avoided is because "yoga and naturopathy doesn't advocate non-vegetarian food in its practice". They have also accused the press of "selectively" highlighting the advisory on eggs and meat while forgetting to mention the unhealthy items on the list.
It's not just the media though, doctors too have questioned their advisory.
"As a doctor I do not see any merit in advising a pregnant woman to not eat eggs or meat. Egg is the easiest and best source of protein," "My advice would be that whoever is comfortable with whatever diet, they should continue with it."
The advice is also at odds with the one offered by India's health ministry on its website: "The foetus extracts iron from the mother, even if she suffers from anaemia, so iron rich foods such as meat, liver, egg, green peas, lentils, green leafy vegetables... should be encouraged to be taken by the mother."
If many found the advisory on food unpalatable, the next few paragraphs of the booklet offered advice that seemed even more strange:
There is, however, one bit of advice the booklet offers on which there is general consensus - the benefits of yoga.
Although traditional wisdom believed pregnancy to be a delicate time and advised expectant mothers to rest and take it easy, over the years doctors have been advising mothers-to-be to build some form of exercise into their daily routine.
"We all live very sedentary lives now so yoga and exercise are healthy. In fact, we do recommend to women who come to us to do some form of exercise, we even hold prenatal classes for them," Dr Naik said.
The health ministry too lists the benefits of staying physically active although it advises pregnant women to stay away from "activities in which you can get hit in the abdomen like kickboxing, soccer, basketball, or ice hockey" or "activities in which you can fall like horseback riding, downhill skiing, and gymnastics".
Some 30 boys have worn skirts to school in protest at being told they were not allowed to wear shorts.
The pupils from ISCA Academy in Exeter asked permission to modify their uniform because of the hot weather.
One of the boys who took part in the protest said: "We're not allowed to wear shorts, and I'm not sitting in trousers all day, it's a bit hot."
Head teacher Aimee Mitchell said shorts were "not part" of the school uniform, as first reported by Devon Live.
For more on the school skirt protest, and other stories from across Devon and Cornwall.
Pupils said the idea for the protest came from the head teacher, who originally made the suggestion, although one student said he did not think she was being serious.
They said they hoped the school would reconsider its shorts policy as a result of the protest and the head has indicated it might be considered.
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s Mitchell said: "We recognise that the last few days have been exceptionally hot and we are doing our utmost to enable both students and staff to remain as comfortable as possible.
"Shorts are not currently part of our uniform for boys and I would not want to make any changes without consulting both students and their families.
"However, with hotter weather becoming more normal, I would be happy to consider a change for the future."
Claire Reeves, whose son is a student at the school, said she had asked the school about her son being able to wear shorts, but was "shot down".
"I feel extremely proud of them all for standing up for their rights. People are always talking about equal right for males and females and school uniform shouldn't be any different", she said.
The school uniform guidelines currently allow male pupils to wear trousers, and female pupils to wear trousers and tartan skirts. Pupils may remove their ties but must carry them with them and shirts can be untucked in class but must be tucked in when they leave the classroom.
What is the longest a person has ever lived for? Meet Li Ching Yuen, a man who lived an astonishing 256 years! And no, this is not a myth or a fictional tale.
According to a 1930 New York Times article, Wu Chung-chieh, a professor of the Chengdu University, discovered Imperial Chinese government records from 1827 congratulating Li Ching-Yuen on his 150th birthday, and further documents later congratulating him on his 200th birthday in 1877.
In 1928, a New York Times correspondent wrote that many of the old men in Li’s neighborhood asserted that their grandfathers knew him when they were boys, and that he at that time was a grown man.
林傑祺 Xavier Lim 【祺哥走訪】 馬來西亞歷史文化景點 Taman Merdeka
Li Ching Yuen reportedly began his herbalist career at the age of 10, where he gathered herbs in mountain ranges and learned of their potency for longevity.
For almost 40 years, he survived on a diet of herbs such as lingzhi, goji berry, wild ginseng, he shoo wu and gotu kola and rice wine.
In 1749, at the age of 71, he joined the Chinese armies as teacher of martial arts. Li was said to be a much-loved figure in his community, marrying 23 times and fathering over 200 children.
According to the generally accepted tales told in his province, Li was able to read and write as a child, and by his tenth birthday had traveled in Kansu, Shansi, Tibet, Annam, Siam and Manchuria gathering herbs.
For the first hundred years he continued at this occupation. Then he switched to selling herbs gathered by others.
He sold lingzhi, goji berry, wild ginseng, he shou wu and gotu kola along with other Chinese herbs, and lived off a diet of these herbs and rice wine.
HE WASN’T THE ONLY ONE
According to one of Li’s disciples, he had once encountered an even older 500-year-old man, who taught him Qigong exercises and dietary recommendations that would help him extend his lifespan to superhuman proportions.
Apart from Qigong and a herb-rich diet, what else can we learn from this Master of Longevity?
How about this: On his death bed, Li famously said, “I have done all that I have to do in this world”. Could his peaceful last words also hint at one of the biggest secrets to a long and prosperous life?
It’s interesting to note that in the West, we’re often taught to believe that aging is something that must be “beaten” with high tech infrared devices and state of the art medication.
HIS SECRET TO LONG HEALTH:
Li was asked what his secret was to longevity. This was his reply:
“Keep a quiet heart, sit like a tortoise, walk sprightly like a pigeon and sleep like a dog.” These were the words of advice Li gave to Wu Pei-fu, the warlord, who took Li into his house to learn the secret of extremely long life.
Li maintained that inward calm and peace of mind combined with breathing techniques were the secrets to incredible longevity.
Obviously, his diet would have played a large role. But its fascinating that the old living person in recorded history attributes his long life to his state of mind.
WHY IS THIS SO HARD TO BELIEVE?
With the average lifespan for the Western world currently sitting between 70-85 years, the thought of someone living over 100 years old seems like quite the stretch.
The thought of someone living over 200 years old seems extremely suspicious. But why don’t we believe that people can live this long?
We have to keep in mind that some people in this world don’t live a grueling 9-5 lifestyle, they don’t have to deal with the stresses of debt, they aren’t breathing polluted city air, and they exercise regularly.
They don’t eat refined sugars or flour, or any foods that have had pesticides sprayed on them. They aren’t living off of the standard American diet.
They aren’t eating fatty meats, sugary desserts, and genetically modified foods. No antibiotics. No alcohol and no tobacco.
Their diets not only exclude junk foods that we so often indulge in, they also include superfoods and herbs which are like steroids for our organs and immune system.
They also spend their spare time in nature practicing breathing techniques and meditating which have been proven to improve mental, physical, and emotional health.
They keep things simple, get proper sleep, and spend a great deal of time in nature under the sun. When we get a chance to relax in the sun, we feel instantly rejuvenated and call this a “vacation”.
Imagine spending a lifetime doing that in the mountains, and combining that with perfect mental, spiritual, and physical well-being.
I do not doubt for a minute that if we all did the things we knew we were supposed to do, that living to be 100 years old would be commonplace. When we treat our bodies right, who knows how long we can live for?
The world's favourite drug
Caffeine is the most commonly used drug in the world with over two billion cups of caffeinated drinks consumed every day. In Europe, caffeine is mainly supplied by coffee.
About 15 minutes after putting down your cup, you'll begin to feel a caffeine hit that can last hours.
It's a neural jolt some of us rely on to simply think straight in the mornings. And some rely on caffeine's effects to feel mentally agile throughout the day. But how does it work? And does caffeine, in all its forms, really deliver?
How do you feed your habit?
Serving sizes: cup of filter coffee: 200ml, energy drink: 250ml, espresso: 60ml, cup of tea: 220ml, can of cola: 355ml, bar of plain chocolate: 50g, bar of milk chocolate: 50g.
It's a common misconception that caffeine only comes from coffee but it's found in many products. For most people, consuming up to 400mg each day poses no problems. Pregnant women are recommended to drink less than 200mg.
Stopping the sleepy feeling
Caffeine works by blocking the action of adenosine – a molecule that tells our brain to feel tired.
Faster but not smarter
Scientists have measured the difference caffeine makes to mental performance by testing regular users and non-users. Here's what they discovered from their study:
While caffeine appears to improve some physical aspects of performance, it does little to enhance the mental abilities of regular users, who quickly develop a tolerance to caffeine’s effects.
Non-users meanwhile might feel more alert after a shot of caffeine but they don’t experience any improvement when carrying out mental performance tests either.
India's tea producing region of Darjeeling has turned into a battleground with a local party demanding a separate state for the area's majority Nepali-speaking Gorkha community.
In recent days, the army has been called out to help the West Bengal state police tackle the protesters. At least five people have been killed and more than 100 others, including 30 policemen, have been injured.
The Gorkha Janmukti Morcha or GJM (Gorkha Peoples Liberation Front), which is spearheading the protest, has accused the police of firing to kill the protesters - a charge police have denied.
The GJM has threatened "a fight-to-the-finish" for Gorkhaland, the separate state they want carved out of the northern hill region of the state.
This movement was provoked by a recent decision of the West Bengal government, ruled by the regional Trinamool Congress party, to introduce Bengali as a compulsory subject in schools across the state, including in Darjeeling.
Genting Highlands Premium Outlets is officially opened! Located just 45 minutes away from downtown Kuala Lumpur, Malaysians who love shopping can now find more than 150 designers and brand name stores at the premium outlets, according to The Star.
Those brands include Adidas, Aiger, Coach, Kate Spade New York, Superdry, Michael Kors and many more!
Although it’s the second premium outlet in Malaysia after Johor Premium Outlets, it’s the first hilltop Premium Outlet Centre in South-East Asia! You guys will definitely be on cloud nine when shopping there! Geddit geddit?
The opening may be subtle and low-profile, but the promotions and offers are definitely huge! For instance, the first 50 customers who spent RM1,000 and above at Polo Ralph Lauren were lucky enough to receive a discount of RM100!
Besides that, the first 100 customers who shopped at Coach Mickey also enjoyed 50% + 30% + 10% savings!
Found more Discount on their Instagram page!
What’s better than a good cup of coffee and yummy ice cream? The free ones of course! In line with the opening, Baskin-Robbins and Starbucks offered the first 250 customers complimentary ice cream and ice-blended coffee respectively!
Moreover, the first 100 customers who spend RM200 or more at the premium outlets are entitled to complimentary tickets for Awana Skyway from June 15 to 24.
A baby elephant was found dead on the side of a highway in Malaysia on Sunday (Jun 17), according to wildlife conservation group Management & Ecology of Malaysian Elephants (MEME).
In a Facebook post, MEME said the animal was killed by a car and urged motorists to be more mindful of roaming wildlife.
"We are devastated to see a baby elephant killed by a car at Gerik-Jeli Highway," said Alicia Solana Mena of MEME. "Drivers please slow down at roads with wildlife crossings.
"Be mindful of our forest friends. Let's not cause them any more harm. They have already lost so much when we took their forest to build roads on."
Highways across Malaysia have signs warning motorists to be aware of animals crossing roads.
One man was killed and eight people hospitalised when a van ran into pedestrians near a mosque in north London in an incident that is being investigated by counter-terrorism officers, police said on Monday (Jun 19).
The 48-year-old male driver of the van "was found detained by members of the public at the scene and then arrested by police," a police statement said.
British Prime Minister Theresa May said the incident is being treated by police as a potential terrorist attack.
"Police have confirmed this is being treated as a potential terrorist attack," May said. "I will chair an emergency meeting later this morning."
"All my thoughts are with the victims, their families and the emergency services on the scene," she said.
The incident took place on Seven Sisters Road, near Finsbury Park station, in north London at 12.20am. The Muslim Council of Britain said on Twitter that a van ran over worshippers as they left Finsbury Park Mosque after prayers.
Witnesses told Sky News that at least 10 people were hit by the van.
"We have been informed that a van has run over worshippers as they left #FinsburyPark Mosque. Our prayers are with the victims," the Muslim Council of Britain (MCB), an umbrella body, said on Twitter.
According to counter-terrorism police co-ordinator Neil Basu, all victims were Muslim but the man who died at the scene may have been taken ill before it happened.
"The attack unfolded as a man was already receiving first aid at the scene, sadly that man has died," Basu said. "Any causative link between his death and the attack will form part of the investigation. It is too early to say if his death was as a result of this attack."
Harun Khan, the head of the MCB, said the van had "intentionally" run over people leaving night prayers for the holy month of Ramadan.
An AFP reporter could see a helicopter and many emergency vehicles at the scene, which was closed off by a large police cordon.
Traffic was shut down on a section of Seven Sisters Road, where the incident happened.
"We saw lots of people shouting and lots of people injured," David Robinson, 41, who arrived just after the accident, told AFP.
The leader of Britain's opposition Labour Party, Jeremy Corbyn, said he was "totally shocked" by the events of Monday morning. "I'm totally shocked at the incident at Finsbury Park tonight," Corbyn posted on Twitter.
"My thoughts are with those and the community affected by this awful event."
Police, including armed officers, could be seen manning a wide cordon around the area. Others searched the area with sniffer dogs.
A group of Muslim men could be seen praying on the pavement nearby. Traffic was shut down along a one-kilometre section of Seven Sisters Road.
Cynthia Vanzella, who lives near the scene, said on Twitter: "Horrible to watch police officers doing cardiac massage at people on the floor, desperately trying to save them. I just hope they did."
MCB deputy head Miqdaad Versi said the incident happened "outside the Muslim Welfare House", which is on Seven Sisters Road near the mosque.
In a statement, the London Ambulance Service said they "treated eight patients at the scene and taken them to three London hospitals", adding a number of patients were also treated at the scene for minor injuries.
It added: “We sent over 60 of our medics to the scene including ambulance crews, advance paramedics and specialist responses teams and an advance trauma team from London's Air Ambulance."
This latest incident comes in the wake of two other attacks in London which involved pedestrians being mowed down by vehicles. On Mar 22, five people were killed and dozens injured after being run over and stabbed near the Houses of Parliament on Westminster Bridge.
The second incident occurred at London Bridge on Jun 3 when eight people were killed in a knife attack after assailants ploughed a van into pedestrians.
London Mayor Sadiq Khan said following that attack that there had been a 40 per cent increase in racist incidents in the city and a five-fold increase in the number of anti-Muslim incidents.
On his Facebook page, Khan at the time called on Londoners "to pull together, and send a clear message around the world that our city will never be divided by these hideous individuals who seek to harm us and destroy our way of life".
From now until 30 June 2017, Wing Zone will be selling their chicken wings at 50 cents a piece on Wednesdays (14, 21, 28), or what they like to call #WingsWednesday.
The promo is valid for both dine-in & takeaway, and you can choose between 10 or 20 pieces of wings per pax.
Note that this promo is only valid while stocks last so be sure to be there early to avoid disappointment.
201 Victoria Street, #04-02, S(188067)
Opening Hours: 11 am – 10 pm daily
277C #01-13 (UNIT 2C), Compassvale Link, S(543277)
Opening Hours: 11 am – 10 pm daily
What are you waiting for? Time to ask your friends out for a makan session liao.
Red Bull isn’t the only one giving you wings 😉